History Optional Syllabus
PAPER – 1
- Archaeological sources:
- Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.
- Literary sources:
- Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
- Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
- Pre-history and Proto-history:
- Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
- Indus Valley Civilization:
- Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
- Megalithic Cultures:
- Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
- Aryans and Vedic Period:
- Expansions of Aryans in India:
- Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
- Period of Mahajanapadas:
- Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
- Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.
- Mauryan Empire:
- Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
- Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
- Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
- Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions,
- Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
- Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
- Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
- Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
- Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
- Regional States during Gupta Era:
- The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds,
- Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya;
- Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
- Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
- Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
- Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
- Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.
- The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.
- Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
- Trade and commerce.
- Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.
- Condition of women.
- Indian science and technology.
- Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
- Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa.
- Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.
- Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
- Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.
- The Thirteenth Century:
- Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success.
- Economic, Social and cultural consequences.
- Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
- Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
- The Fourteenth Century:
- “The Khalji Revolution”.
- Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.
- Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
- Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.
- Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
- Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
- Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
- Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.
- The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:
- Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.
- Malwa, Bahmanids.
- The Vijayanagara Empire.
- Mughal Empire, first phase: Babur, Humayun.
- The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration.
- Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.
- The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:
- Regional cultures specificities.
- Literary traditions.
- Provincial architectural.
- Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
- Conquests and consolidation of empire.
- Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
- Rajput policy.
- Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
- Court patronage of art and technology.
- Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
- Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
- The Empire and the Zamindars.
- Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
- Nature of the Mughal State.
- Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.
- The Ahom kingdom.
- Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
- Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
- Population Agricultural and craft production.
- Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution.
- Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems.
- Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.
- Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.
- Culture during Mughal Empire:
- Persian histories and other literature.
- Hindi and religious literatures.
- Mughal architecture.
- Mughal painting.
- Provincial architecture and painting.
- Classical music.
- Science and technology.
- The Eighteenth Century:
- Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
- The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
- Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
- The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
- Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.
- State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.
PAPER – 2
- European Penetration into India:
- The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
- British Expansion in India:
- Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
- Early Structure of the British Raj:
- The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773);
- The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
- Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
- Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
- Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior;
- European business enterprise and its limitations.
- Social and Cultural Developments:
- The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.
- Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
- Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
- Indian Response to British Rule:
- Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
- Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
- Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
- Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
- Other strands in the National Movement.
- The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.
- The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress
- Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
- Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
- Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
- Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
- Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.
- Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
- Major Ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.
- Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.
- Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
- Origins of Modern Politics:
- European States System.
- American Revolution and the Constitution.
- French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.
- American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
- British Democratic politics, 1815-1850: Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
- English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society.
- Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.
- Industrialization and Globalization.
- Nation-State System:
- Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.
- Nationalism: State-building in Germany and Italy.
- Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.
- Imperialism and Colonialism:
- South and South-East Asia.
- Latin America and South Africa.
- Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
- Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
- 19th Century European revolutions.
- The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.
- Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
- The Chinese Revolution of 1949.
- World Wars:
- 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications.
- World War I: Causes and Consequences.
- World War II: Causes and Consequences.
- The World after World War II:
- Emergence of Two power blocs.
- Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.
- UNO and the global disputes.
24 . Liberation from Colonial Rule:
- Latin America-Bolivar.
- Arab World-Egypt.
- Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.
- South-East Asia-Vietnam.
- Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
- Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.
- Unification of Europe:
- Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community.
- Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
- European Union.
- Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
- Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.
- Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.
- End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.